Ethnobotany aims to document, describe and explain complex relationships between cultures and plants, focusing primarily on how plants are used, managed and perceived across human societies. This includes use for food, clothing, currency, ritual, medicine, dye, construction, and cosmetics. Symbiosis Foundation conducts applied research and develops media and other educational and training programmes in this field.
Zoopharmacognosy refers to the behaviour in which wildlife or domesticated animals apparently self-medicate by selecting and ingesting or topically applying plants, soils, insects and other substances to treat or prevent disease. Since 1995, research has been conducted in Dutch Zoos and nature reserves with the help of many students to get more insight in this part of animal behaviour.